This article describes the difficulties that Duat Mutlakin faced in Ahmedabad during the rule of Moghul emperors.
Syedna Dawood Bin Ajabshah (R.A.) 975-999 A.H. : Syedna was molested by Muzaffarshah in Ahmedabad. He looted mumenins and tyranissed them in every way. Due to his tyranny Syedna went to kapadwanj. Muzzafarshah was then defeated by Akbar.So he fled from Ahmedabad to Kapadwanj. There he was welcomed by syedna's representatives Sh. Kazikhan and Khoj bin malak. Syedna did not think of avenging the cruelties of Muzzafarshah in latter's plight. Later syedna invited Muzaffershah and his troops to his home and latter repented for his misdeeds.
After appointing Mirjahan as his deputy Akbar returned to lahore. But mirjahan also molested mumenins for not consuming drugs (Ganja and Bhang). He was also a tyrant and was instigated by Mohammed bin Taher Nehrwala.
In Baroda also Akbar's deputy Moh. khan troubled mumenins much. Salahuddin of baroda killed Syedi Moosanji Tajsaheb on backbitings of foes. They were trying to arrest Syedna. Thereafter Syedna came to Cambay (Khambhat). There Syedna was presented Shawls by the deputy of Akbar, khan Azam. He instructed his representatives to respect Syedna. Syedna's spirituality attracted every one including Kings and rich people of the city of Cambay.
Syedna Dawood Bin Qutubshah (RA) 999-1021A.H. : Syedna Dawood bin Qutubshah (RA) also passed the difficult period with the rulers. In his time Shahmurad the prince of Akbar came to Ahmedabad as Governor. Representatives of Suleman went to him and bribed him. They claimed Rs. 16 lakhs of rupees from Syedna. This caused the arrest of learned and virtous persons Miya Shaikh Adam and Miya Ali Mohammed for forty days. At that time Sadiq Mohammed the vazir of the emperor helped Syedna in many ways. When Shah Murad came to know about about the reality, he ordered to give up charges of arrest. After some days Shah murad released the pious persons with all their due repsects.
Suleman refused to accept Syedna as a Dai. However a big file of letters was revealed in which suleman had accepted Syedna as Dai. On the basis of this file the documents were prepared to support Syedna. These documents were signed by Vazir Sadiq Muhammed, Qazi jan Muhammed Sakaki, Amir Kabir, Shah Abu Turab and others. When turk of vazir came to know about the artocities of Suleman, he arrested suleman in the fort of zamamar and asked him to pay a bail of Rs.80,000. Suleman did not pay and escaped to India.
Syed Qasim again arrested Maula Ali Mohammed and Maula Shaikh Adam. When Begum of Shah Murad in Bharuch knew the matter she immediately ordered the release of Maula shaikh Ali Mohammed and Maula Shaikh Adam. She ordered the arrest of Suleman and Ibrahim. Suleman and Ibrahim reached lahore after their release and backbited Ahdi Kamal Khan, one of the darbaris of Akbar. This caused the arrest of six pious persons including Maula Ali Mohammed and Maula Shaikh Adam. After arresting them Kamal Khan came to Ahmedabad to arrest Syedna. He troubled the mumenins of Ahmedabad a lot. He looted the Mohallas of mumenins. In lahore six pious persons were under the tyranny of Osman, brother-in-law of Kamal Khan. When vazir fathulla khachki knew about the arrest, he immediately ordered to release them. After tyrannising in Ahmedabad kamal khan returned to Lahore with all looted property. Due to tyranny 27,000 mumenins of Ahmedabad scattered and resided in remote parts. When the emperor was informed of tyranny and loot, he ordered Aamir kabir raja ramdas to arrest him before entering lahore. He was then arrested and presented in Darbar. Saiyedi Shaikh Adam was also presented with him in the Darbar. After hearing the sufferings mumenins had from Kamalkhan the emperor ordered rigorous imprisonment for kamalkhan.
In 1005 A.H. Syedna Dawood Bin Qutubshah, having been summoned by emperor Akbar to appear at the court, he besought maula shaikh Adam, Maula Ali Mohammed, Maula Mamuji and Maulana Khanji. through Hakim Ali. Maula Shaikh Adam replied that "Though Syedna was in seclusion since four years but they should try their best to convey him the bounties of emperor". The emperor granted khilat to four pious persons and a shawl to Syedna.
When Syedna reached Lahore, the emperor was in Kashmir. In emperor's absence Hakim Ali received Syedna in Lahore and escorted him to the court of Kashmir in a state silver palanquin.The emperor received him with great respect. Syedna was given a high seat in the darbar.According to his habit Syedna recited Quran-Sharif daily in the darbar of emperor.The emperor was so influenced by the spirituality of Syedna that he would gaze at him for hours.
Syedna stayed in kashmir as a respected guest of emperor. All nobles especially Abul Fazal, Hakim Ali and Khan Azam gave due respect to syedna. Syedna came to Lahore from Kashmir and thereafter he returned to Ahmedabad under the protection of the emperor with Royal Farman, ordering the officials at Ahmedabad to show him every attention and to receive him wherever he went with respect on account of his great learning, virtue and piety. The emperor granted the following farman in syedna's honour. This farman is written by vazir Abdul Fazal in golden letters.
Emperor Akbar's farman :
Allaho-akbar. This glorious farman is issued graciously to satisfy the wishes of sardar of Dawoodi Bohras after considering and calling him to our darbar so that the deputies of Gujarat especially authorities of Ahmedabad and Sidhpur and areas in connection to them, not obstruct them in their ways and let them come to us according to their will. And (the auhorities) should not object them and his followers especially in their religious traditions, systems and taxes and about prohibited things and they should return their properties which are sealed, afer removing the seals giving them back. Not to restrict them from any business or occupation they are willing. They should give facilities to them and authorities should not be covetous for any thing. They should return all the properties which are seized because in near future their case is to be taken under consideration. Karories, Jagirdars and all responsible Mutasaddirs of Gujarat are required to extend all facilities to the mentioned pious persons while passing through their territories.If he wants any guide then provide him with it for safety against robbery and all dangers of the way so that they may reach to their safe place. To respect them must be considered a duty. 1st Rabiul-Awwal 1005 A.D. Capitol Lahore.
Along with this farman Syedna was presented with valuable khilas and a horse. The farman was renewed by Jahangir in 1099 A.H.
After these events contacts with Hakim of Ahmedabad harmonised. But soon Shadman came to Ahmedabad as new Hakim. He was not good with Syedna. Thereafter Syedna left Ahmedabad. When Jahangir knew about it, he removed him and Shaikh farid came to Ahmedabad. Syedna already had good relations with Shaikh farid. Shaikh farid earnestly requested syedna to return to Ahmedabad. Thereafter Syedna returned to Ahmedabad and was respected by high authorities throughout rest of his life.
Syedna Abdul Taiyab Zakiuddin (R.A) 1030 -1041 A.H. : During the reign of Syedna Abdul Taiyed Zakiuddin, son of Syedna Dawood bin Qutubshah, Ali bin Ibrahim turned astray. He went to Jahangir's darbar and complained that he was excommunicated by syedna and was very much molested by his enemies creating great disturbance in Ahmedabad and preferring several vexation complaints against him at the court of Jahangir. The ministers of the darbar opined that reconcillations should be brought between Syedna and his enemies (Ali bin Ibrahim). Syedna was invited by the emperor to his court, where he stayed for some period and was treated with great honour andrespect. Ali bin Ibrahim begged pardon of syedna through emperor's recommendation. Syedna pardoned Ali bin Ibrahim for his deeds.
Syedna Qasim Khan Bin Feerkhan 1042-1054 A.H. : Syedna was grandson of Syedi Hasan peer shahid who had solved the difficulty of sultan peeram shah about an Aayat of Quran. During this period there were no disastorous events but the period was not completely quiet.
The jealous groups were unsatisfied by the civilised approach of Akbar and Jahangir but they were compelled to obey the directions of these emperors. The explosion of these jealousy took place in the reign of Syedna Qutub khan Qutbuddin, son of Syedna Dawood bin Qutubshah to whom Akbar and Jahangir had granted glorious farmans.
Syedna Qutbuddin Shahid 1054-1056 A.H. : During the reign of Syedna Qutbuddin Shahid Aurangzeb came to Ahmedabad. Abdul Gavi a staunch Sunni backbited Aurangzeb and caused the arrest of Syedna. Gavi argued that Syedna was Rafzi (one who do not obey Rasulullah's Sunnah) and therefore his blood is legal. Though shahbeg the kutuwal was not tyrant but was bound to follow the orders of Gavi. He carried away six big carriages of books to see whether there was anything to prove Rafzi. He imprisoned Syedna Qutbuddin Shahid, his sucessor Syedna Fir Khan Shujauddin and two other mumenins. Syedna suffered a rigourous prison for about a month. He was then invited to Aurangzeb's darbar for clarification. Syedna declared that they are the true followers of Rasullullah and his sunnah. All present darbaris were greatly impressed by Syedna's speech. Abdul Gavi a staunch sunni was not ready to release a pious shia. He prepared a false mehdara blaming syedna as Rafzi. Qazi refused to attest the mehdara without witness. Abdul Gavi persuaded two innocent children from Syedna's family and presented before Qazi as witness. Qazi signed the mehdara unwillingly. The document for Syedna's execution was prepared. On the 27th of Jamadil-Ukhra in 1056 A.H. Syedna was slained by the tyrants. His corpse were not given to mumenin to bury. But by a miracle they were able to carry it under the sentry.
After this martyrdom there was a open slaughter of mumenins on streets of Ahmedabad. Tyrant Auangzeb ordered to expell the momenins, the followers of Syedna from city. This was the second plight after the plight of tyranny of kamalkhan.
A glorious mausoleum is erected over his tomb by Syedna Taher Saifuddin Saheb in Ahmedabad.
Syedna Feer Khan Shujauddin 1056 - 1065 A.H. : He was kept in captivity by the bigoted prince Aurangzeb and was taken by him to Aurangabad after being removed by emperor shahjahan from Gujarat to the Deccan on account of his cruel oppression. Thereafter in Lahore Syedna was placed in stable, which on the following night happened to catch fire and was totally destroyed except the dungeon, where in Syedna passed the night and prayed to Almighty and was found quite safe in the morning. All people held that the conflagration was the consequence of the curse the prince had brought upon himself by keeping his holiness in captivity.
By an imperial order Aurangzeb was compelled to set Syedna at liberty and grant him a safe and honourable return to Ahmedabad. He reached Ahmedabad after two years of Shahdat in themonth of Ramazan.
Gheratkhan was then Hakim of Ahmedabad. Again Gherat Khan was backbited. He arrested Syedna and demanded Rs. 3 lakhs. Syedna was again imprisoned and was released after the 6 months. In 1066 A.H. Shahmurad came to Ahmedabad and arrested Syedna.Thus after Shahdat of Maulana Qutbuddin Shahid R.A., Syedna Shujauddin suffered much for the sake of the divine mission of the khidmat of Imamuz-zaman.
On one side Syedna was suffering and on the other Hakims were compelling mumenins to Shave their beards, to intoxicate and to use bangles and ornaments made of ivory. One may remind the circumstances during and after shahdat of Imam Hussain (S.A.) in Karbala after Rasulullah (S.A.)
Syedna Abdul Taiyeb Zakiuddin (R.A.) 1085-1110 A.H. : On request of Mumenins Syedna arrived in Ahmedabad.He was again persecuted by the deputies of Aurangzeb acting in collusion with his enemies. Kar Talib khan, who was then Hakim tried to arrest Syedna coveting wealth. But Syedna secretly went away to Jamnagar.
In Jamnagar Jam Tamanjee gave refugee to Syedna accepting the imprisonment of his two sons laka and bhaba.
During the same period Maulana Najam Khan, Maulana Abdul Vahid, Maulana Hassan Khan, Maulana Tayeb Khan and many other pious persons were led in captivity to the court of Aurangzeb at Aurangabad. They were released after undergoing severe hardships.